Andijan is the fourth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and the capital of the Andijan Province. It is located in the east of the country in the Fergana Valley, near the border with Kyrgyzstan on the Andijan-Say River. It has a population of 323,900 (1999 census estimate).

Andijan was an important stop on the Silk Road, lying roughly mid-way between Kashgar and Khodjend. Destroyed by Genghis Khan, it was rebuilt by his grandson Kaidu Khan in the late 13th century, and became the capital of Ferghana for the next three centuries. It is best known as the birthplace of Zahiruddin Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty in South Asia, in 1483. He was fond of the place, and wrote in his memoirs that‘Game and Sporting birds are plentiful in Andizhan.

The Pheasants get extremely fat, and it is said that not even four people can finish eating a stew made from just one. The people are Turks. Among the city folk and merchants, there is no one who does not know Turki language. The people's pronunciation is like the literary language since the works of Mir Ali-Sher Nawa'i, although he was raised in Herat, are in this language. Among the people there is much beauty. Khwaja Yusuf, who is famous for music, was from Andizhan. The air is unwholesome, and in the autumn the inflammation of the eyes, called aqrab by physicians, is rampant.' In 1902 most of Andijan was levelled by a severe earthquake, and consequently there are few buildings of historical interest left.

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